The Budget 2020 is going to be ‘the great gig in the sky’ for some time now, till the next year’s budget rolls in. Until then, we take a look at all the budgets over the decade and talk about what the implications of these budgets were.
Healthcare: ‘How To Save a Life’
By Kshipra Petkar and Shalu Chowrasia
In the year 2010-2011, around Rs. 1 crore smart cards were provided to BPL workers under the National Rural Health Mission (NHRM). Emphasis was on the need for resources to strengthen food security and health facilities in both urban and rural India.
The year 2012-13 achieved the target of zero polio cases in the country. Furthermore, schemes like the National Urban Health mission and Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY) were also set up to cater to the nutrition of women and children by reducing the customs tax on products like soya, iodine and probiotics.
In the year 2013-14, Rs. 37 crore were allotted to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. A lot of focus was put on medical research, education and training along with healthcare services provided for elderly in 21 states. In 2014-15, the budget decreased by Rs. 1000 crore. The focus was on a wide range of healthcare services in the form of vaccines, more medical institutions, research centres in rural India, newer drug testing laboratories and policies to control malnutrition.
In 2015-16, the budget further dropped from Rs. 36,000 crore to Rs. 33,000 crore and the emphasis was on Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana.
The budget of 2016-17 focused to protect the BPL families from the effects of ‘chulla’ by introducing gas services. “National Dialysis Services Programme” under the National Health Mission was also proposed in this budget.
The budget of 2017-18 aimed to increase job opportunities in the healthcare sector in the form of Mahila Shakti Kendra, Aanganwadis and post graduate seats in medical colleges. The year 2018-19 budget aimed at improving healthcare by focusing on on open defecation and the use of organic resources to make biogas and bio-CNG.
In 2019, the budget focused on schemes like Ayushman Bharat, Pradhan Mantri Jan Aushadhi Kendra,and Ujjwala Yojana and to work towards sustainable solid waste management in every village.
Water and Sanitation: ‘Water No Get Enemy’
By Apoorva GS
Over the past ten years, the allocation to the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation has seen an annual average increase of 9percent. In the last ten years, the allocation of rural sanitation and drinking water programs under the Ministry’s budget has seen a shift. While the drinking water allocation has reduced from 87percent in 2009-10 to 31percent in 2018-19, the allocation to rural sanitation has increased from 13percent in 2009-10 to 69percent in 2018-19.
The Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin (SBM-G) is the rural component of the program. In 2018-19, it had been allocated Rs 15,343 crore, which was a decrease of 9.5percent from the revised estimates of 2017-18. Allocation to some other schemes in 2018-19, such as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme is Rs 55,000 crore, National Health Mission is Rs 30,634, and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is Rs 26,129 crore.
For the construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHLs), the funds are shared between the centre and the state in the ratio of 60:40. In the last ten years, the allocation to rural sanitation and drinking water programs under the Ministry’s budget has seen a shift. While the allocation to drinking water has reduced from 87percent in 2009-10 to 31percent in 2018-19, the allocation to rural sanitation has increased from 13percent in 2009-10 to 69percent in 2018-19.
In 2017-18, the number of villages verified as ODF had substantially come down.
Infrastructure and Industry: ‘Assembly Line’
By Yumna Ahmed and Ankita Mukherjee
The first five years, infrastructure and industry development sector witnessed a sharp increase—by 23 per cent, in the road transport budget, and tax-free bond was announced for the financing infrastructure projects. The next five years, however, came up with new schemes and policies for road infrastructure. In 2010-2011, Rs. 1,73,552 crore was allocated to the sector—accounting to 46 per cent of the total plan allocation. A raise was proposed in road transport by over 13per cent as compared to the previous year. IIFCL’s disbursements were targeted at Rs 20,000 crore by March 2011.
Next year, a sharp increase of 23.3 per cent was noticed in the, which amounted to 48.5 per cent of the total plan. The National Capacity Building Programme was launched to enhance capacities of public functionaries in identifying, conceptualising, structuring and managing Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs).
In the following year, tax-free bonds were announced for financing infrastructure projects.
While in 2013-2014, the budget was proposed to raise money in the issue of tax-free bonds up to Rs 50,000 crore.
From 2014, schemes and policies took the lead in budget. Finance Minister proposed a plan to provide support to mainstreaming PPPs to be set up with a corpus of Rs 500 crore. Also, the master planning of three new smart cities in the Chennai-Bengaluru Industrial Corridor region was aimed to complete.
National Investment and Infrastructure Fund (NIIF) was proposed to establish in 2015-2016, with an annual flow of Rs.20,000 crore. The government also proposed to set up five new Ultra Mega Power Project.
In 2016-2017, there was an increase in the investment on roads–to Rs. 97,000 crore, and the total outlay for infrastructure stood at Rs. 2,21,246 crore.
For 2017-2018Rs.1,31,000 crore was total expenditure for Railways. Rashtriya Rail Sanraha Kosh was proposed for passengers’ safety,
An online monitoring system of PRAGATI was proposed in 2018-2019–Projects worth 9.46 lakh crore– Smart Cities Mission and the AMRUT were facilitated.
In this year’s budget, a massive push has been given to all forms of physical connectivity through Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, industrial corridors, dedicated freight corridors, Bhartamala and Sagarmala projects, Jal Marg Vikas and UDAN Schemes.
Education: ‘Another Brick in the Wall’
In the initial years of the decade, the education sector witnessed budget allocation for various schemes for the welfare and development of the budding generation of the nation. However, the next five years focused on good quality education and higher.
This year’s budget continues to aim the same targets by allocating Rs. 99,300 crore for education sector—slightly higher than the last year, which was Rs. 94,800 crore. The budget allocation for school education increased by 16 per cent–from Rs. 26,800 crore to Rs. 31,036 crore. The allocation again increased by 24 per cent over 2011-12, as Rs. 21,000 crore were allocated to Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)—which is 40 per cent higher than the last year.
The major step in 2012-13 budget was the implementation of the Right to Education (RTE) Act along with SSA—with Rs. 25,555 crore allocated for the scheme. The funds allocated to Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) were, however, Rs. 3,124 crore.
The next year’s budget focused on allocating Rs. 27,258 crore for SSA and Rs. 5,284 crore were allocated to Ministries/Departments for scholarships to minority students.In 2014-15 budget, the funds for SSA were raised to Rs. 28,635 crore and Rs. 4, 966 crore were reserved for RMSA. However, no major changes were announced for 2015-2016.
Whereas, the focus of 2016-17 budget was to set up digital depository for school leaving certificates and mark sheets along with the setting up of Higher Education Financing Agency with Rs. 1000 crore capital.
In 2017-18 the budget aimed to provide good quality higher education and innovation funds for secondary education, which were to be introduced in 3479 educationally backward districts.
For 2018-19, the allocation fell to Rs. 81, 868 crore. It proposed a New National Education Policy to transform India’s higher education system and Rs. 400 crore was allocated under the head, “World Class Institutions”.